In the process of completing this research paper, I have sầu received great giảm giá of helps, guidance & encouragements from teachers và friends.First of all, I would like to lớn express my deepest thanks lớn my supervisor, Mrs. Nguyen Thi Phi Nga who given me suggestions on how to lớn shape the study và always been most willing & ready khổng lồ give me valuable advice, helpful comments as well as correction of my retìm kiếm paper.Next, I would lượt thích to lớn express my gratitude khổng lồ all teachers in foreign language department for their lectures 4 years that help me much in completing this paper.
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1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the process of completing this retìm kiếm paper, I have received great khuyễn mãi giảm giá of helps, guidance and encouragements from teachers and friends. First of all, I would lượt thích to express my deepest thanks to lớn my supervisor, Mrs. Nguyen Thi Phi Nga who given me suggestions on how to lớn shape the study and always been most willing và ready khổng lồ give me valuable advice, helpful comments as well as correction of my retìm kiếm paper. Next, I would like to express my gratitude khổng lồ all teachers in foreign language department for their lectures 4 years that help me much in completing this paper. Last but not least, I would like khổng lồ thank my family và my friends who have sầu always encouraged, supported và helped me to lớn complete this paper. Hai Phong, June 2009 Student Nguyen Minc Huong 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS - Acknowledgements - Table of contents PART I: INTRODUCTION..1 1.Rationale of the study...................................1 2.Retìm kiếm method.......................1 3.Study restriction và retìm kiếm.......................2 PART II: DEVELOPMENT.4 Chapter 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND......4 1.1 What is translation?....................................................................................4 1.2 Translation types.6 1.2.1 Word-for-word translation...................6 1.2.2 Literal translation6 1.2.3 Faithful translation.7 1.2.4 Semantic translation7 1.2.5 Adaptation.8 1.2.6 Free translation..8 1.2.7 Idiomatic translation.9 1.2.8 Communicative translation10 1.2.9 Translation by using a loan word. 10 1.2.10 Shift or transposition translation..10 1.3 An overview of idioms12 1.3.1 What is an idiom?........................................................................12 3 1.3.2 Translation equivalence..14 1.3.3 Non-equivalent cases14 126.96.36.199 Transliteral.16 188.8.131.52 Explanation17 CHAPTER 2. TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH IDIOMS ON NATURAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL PHENOMENA INTO VIETNAMESE18 2.1 The meanings of English idioms on natural & geographical phenomenon.18 2.2 English idioms on natural và geographical phenomenon compared khổng lồ Vietnamese equivalent.24 CHAPTER 3. SUGGESTED SOLUTION FOR NON-EQUIVALENT IN TRANSLATION..36 3.1. Non-equivalent cases and explanation..36 3.2. Suggested solutions...41 3.2.1 Influence on the culture, the nature và the social condition.41 3.2.2 Identifying idioms..41 3.2.3 Guessing the meaning.42 4 3.2.4 Using idioms in the suitable situation.42 3.2.5 Finding Vietnamese equivalents.42 3.2.6 Suggested exercises on English idioms..43 PART III: CONCLUSION45 REFERENCE.47 5 Part One: INTRODUCTION 1. RATIONALE Culture exchange and foreign trade exchange are definitions quite familiar with every Vietnamese people in the 21st century. When more importantly, our country is member of world organization trade (WTO), culture exchange or international business cooperation is boosting than ever before. My passion is ancestor‟s saying or idioms since I started going to lớn school. In my mind, there always happened a question that why or where our ancestor created incredible idioms. And my suspect is more and more greater when I enter inlớn my university - their places that help me develop my instinct comprehensively. On the other h&, khổng lồ underst& & communicate English effectively we should not only pay attention to lớn vocabulary, grammar, intonation but master idioms as well. However, “what is an idiom?” I only know that it is very important khổng lồ all English learners because the misunderstanding of idiom meanings causes the bad effects in communication. But how can idioms affect communication? I know a bit little. So I went lớn ask so many learners of English as a foreign language this question. But what I received was that “it is very important”, but little more. Being a student of English, I am too shocked in this problem và my desire is to lớn make it clear và to get more comprehensive sầu và specific understanding. 2. RESEARCH METHOD In order khổng lồ learn English idioms on natural & geographical phenomena and Vietnamese equivalent better the following methods are used in the studying process: + Having discussion with supervisors, teachers and friends. 6 + Collecting in tệp tin with other words và idioms which have sầu similar meaning + Accessing internet or reference in workbook, dictionary & search libraries. 3. RESEARCH PURPOPSE AND RESTRICTION The purpose of this graduation thesis has primarily been to lớn define and describe idioms frequently seen in English – Vietnamese translation which does not completely ruin the whole work though, may confuse or puzzle readers of the target language. To further develop the argument, the thesis works out some of the major causes of non-equivalence in English – Vietnamese translations by not only students of English but also people who practice translating as their profession. Each cause is presented with typical examples taken out from published materials lượt thích newspaper articles, translated literary works, and students‟ translation exercises as well as assignments. The thesis then boldly suggests possible solutions, i.e. a number of strategies translators và would-be translators can employ to lớn address or, at least, minimize these common mistakes. Idiom is a treasure of each country and it‟s too difficult lớn study about the all English idioms because of its immense number. Moreover, my knowledge và time for this study is limited. So, I only study on English idioms on natural & geographical phenomemãng cầu into lớn Vietnamese the equivalent và non-equivalent between Vietnamese and English idioms. Being aware of the fact that idioms are extremely difficult topic and merely well-understood by foreign English learners và even if native speakers of English who take the idioms for granted because when they use idioms, they don‟t know that they are using them, however, appreciate the idioms associated to attitude and behavior of the speakers. So when they hear 7 foreigners make grammatical or pronunciation mistakes, they are quite willing to accept và underst& them. But if inappropriate idioms are used then, they might not underst& what person means and that lead to lớn a misunderstanding & boring conversation. Therefore, my research is aimed at: + Giving the knowledge of geographical và natural idioms. + Distinguishing different kinds of geographical và natural idioms. + Raising the learners‟ awareness of the existence of geographical và natural idioms and the effects using them on communication. + Helping the learners use right idioms in right situation. + Helping learners compare the equivalent and non-equivalent between English và Vietnamese geographical và natural idioms. 8 Part Two: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 1.1 . What is translation? Translation is very important but also difficult for English learners. Translation has existed in every corner of our life. It is considered as an indispensable part in the field of not only literature ,culture and religion but also commercial advertisement ,popular entertainment ,public administration ,international diplomacy, scientific retìm kiếm publication ,judiciary procedure ,immigration and education .Thus, definitions of translation are numerous & a large numbers of writers have written about this subject In this paper, some various concepts of translation have been collected as follows: - Translation is the copy made in one language of what has been written, or spoken in another. - Translation consists of producing in the target language the closet natural equivalent of the source language message, firstly with respect khổng lồ meaning and secondly with respect khổng lồ style.( E.A.Nida, 1959) - Translation is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation, that communicated the same message in another language. The text khổng lồ be translated is called the “source text”, & the language it is to be translated inlớn is called the “target text.” - Translation is the transformation of a text originally in one language inkhổng lồ an equivalent in the nội dung of the message & the formal features và the roles of the original text ( Bell , 1991). 9 - Translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies behind its different verbal expressions (Savory , 1968). - Translation is rendering the meaning of a text inlớn another language in the way that author intended the text (Newmark , 1988). - Translation, as process of conveying messages across the linguistic & cultural barriers, is an eminently communicative sầu activity, one whose use could be well considered in a wider range of teaching situation than may currently be the case (Tudor, cited in Duff, 1989: 5). Although these definitions are different in expression, they chia sẻ comtháng features about finding the closest equivalence in meaning by the choice of appreciate target language‟s lexical & grammatical structures, communication situation, & cultural context. Some sort of movement from one language to another depends on translation types that will be show in the next part. Or sometimes translation is defined simply such as “a piece of writing or speech that has been translated from a different language.” For example: “On the sly he leads a very gay life.” In order lớn translate this sentence correctly we should analyze it clearly. “On the sly” means secret, “Lead a gay life” refer lớn a licentious life. So this sentence is translated inkhổng lồ Vietnamese “Anh ta giấu cuộc sống rất là trác táng của bản thân.” Or: “He promised khổng lồ give sầu his son anything within reason for his twenty-first birthday.” 10 In this sentence we should pay attention to phrase “anything within reason”. Anything within reason means reasonable anything which father‟s ability can give his son. In some countries, adolescent at the age of 21 can be considered as a mature person. This sentence mean: “Ông ta đã hứa Tặng mang đến nam nhi mình bất cứ vật dụng gì vừa ví tiền nhân dịp sinh nhật lần máy 21 của cậu ấy.” 1.2 Translation types. The translation types are often categorized by the number of areas of specialization. Each specialization has its own strategies và difficulties. Some translation types are list as following: 1.2.1 Word-for-word translation: the SL word order is preserved and the words are translated by their most comtháng meanings. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of this method is either to lớn understvà the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process. For example: My father is proposed by the director Bố tôi được đề bạt vị giám đốc 1.2.2 Literal translation: Literal translation is a broader khung of translation, each SL word has a corresponding TL word, but their primary meanings may differ. The SL grammatical constructions are converted to lớn their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical items are again translated out of context. Literal translation is considered the basic translation step, both in communicative và semantic translation, in that translation starts from there. As pre-translation process, it indicates problems to lớn be solved. For examples: 11 The careless watchman was responsible for the fire to a great extent. Người bảo đảm an toàn thiếu cẩn trọng chịu trách rưới nhiệm phần lớn về vụ hoả thiến. He must use his personal property to settle the debts of the business of he goes bankrupt. Anh ta đề nghị sử dụng gia tài cá nhân của chính bản thân mình nhằm trả món nợ của bạn trường hợp anh ta bị phá sản. 1.2.3 Faithful translation: Faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constrains of the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical & lexical deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to lớn the intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer. For example: Today the Vietnamese are, almost no exception, extremely friendly khổng lồ Western visitors. Ngày nay, fan cả nước, gần như không tồn tại ngoại tệ, đều rất thân mật cùng với khách hàng phượt tín đồ phương thơm Tây. (Text book for Translation 1-Haiphong private university) 1.2.4 Semantic translation: Semantic translation differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must take more tài khoản of the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising on meaning where appropriate so that no assonance, word play or repetition jars in the finished version. It does not rely on cultural equivalence and makes very small concessions lớn the readership .While faithful translation is dogmatic, semantic translation is more flexible. Newark (1982:22) says 12 that”semantic translating where the translator attempt, within the base syntactic & semantic constrains of the TL, to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the author”. For example: Today the Vietnamese are, almost no exception, extremely friendly lớn Western visitors Ngày nay, bạn Việt Nam đều rất thân mật với các khách du ngoạn nước ngoài. (Text book for Translation 1-Haiphong private university) 1.2.5 Adaptation: This is the freest size of translation mainly used for plays and poetry: theme, characters, plots preserved, SL culture converted to TL culture và text is rewritten. Dung Vu (2004) points out that “Adaptation has a property of lending the ideas of the original khổng lồ create a new text used by a new language more than to be faithful to be original. The creation in adaptation is completely objective sầu in contents as well as form”. For example: Thà một phút ít huy hoàng rồi chợt tắt Còn hơn bi tráng le lói trong cả trăm năm (Xuân Diệu) It would rather the victorious brightness In an only moment the centenary twinkle 13 1.2.6 Free translation: Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the nội dung with out the form of the original .Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original, a so-called “intralingua translation “often prolix and pretentious và not translation at all The advantage of this type of translation is that the text in TL sound more natural .On the contrary, the disadvantage is that translating is too casual khổng lồ underst& the original because of its freedom (Dung Vu, 2004, www.talawas.org) For example: To reduce fertility rate the present 3.7 children per woman lớn replacement level of 2. Tỉ lệ sinh hiện giờ của thiếu phụ sút trường đoản cú 3,7 xuống còn 2 trẻ. 1.2.7 Idiomatic translation: Idiomatic translation is used for colloquialism & idioms whose literalism is the translation by which the translator does not transfer the literalism of the original, uses the translation of colloquialism và idioms. For instance: “He is a really strict and crude trùm. He breaks his staff’s bachồng all week.” The phrase “lớn break somebody’s back” is not only understood as someone baông chồng is broken. It has an idiomatic meaning. It means force somebody to work hard. So the sentence “He breaks his staff‟s back all week” means the boss forces his staff work hard all week. Or: E.g.: Love sầu me, love sầu my dog 14 Yêu em yêu cả đường đi lối về E.g.: Follow love & it‟ll flee thee, flee love và it will follow thee Theo tình thì tình chạy, trốn tình thì tình theo 1.2.8 Communicative sầu translation: It attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both language và nội dung are readily acceptable & comprehensible khổng lồ the readership. “But even here the translator still has khổng lồ respect & work on the size of the source language text as the only material basis for his work” (Peter Newmark, 1982:39). For example: Good morning Bác đi đâu đấy ạ! Bác đi làm đồng đấy ạ! 1.2.9 Translation by using a loan word is particularly common in dealing with culture-specific items, modern concepts and buzz words. Using a loan word is dramatically strong method applied for the word which have foreign origin or have sầu no equivalence in TL. 1.2.10 Shift or transposition translation: A “Shift” Cattford term or “Transposition” (Vinay và Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL. One type, the change in the word order is named “Automatic translation”, & offers translator no choice. There are many differences between idioms and proverbs: 15 Idiom Proverb 1. Idiom is a regularly used from words, particularly in some way either lớn an individual or a group. It can from a style of communication. 1. Proverb is a saying that makes a truth or piece of wisdom easier to lớn rethành viên. 2. An expression whose meaning in not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, as “go to the dog, let the mèo out of the bag, etc” or from the general grammatical rules of a languages as “ the table round” for “ the round table”, and which is not a constituent of a larger expression of lượt thích characteristics. 2. A short popular sayings, usually of unknown and ancient origin, that expresses effectively some comtháng places truth or useful thought, adages, saw. 3. A languages, dialect, or style of speaking peculiar khổng lồ people. 3. A wise saying or precept, a didactic sentence. 4. A construction or expression of one language whose parts correspond khổng lồ elements in another language but whose total structure or meaning is not matched in the same way in the second language. 4. A person or thing that is commonly regarded as an embodiment or representation of some unique, by word. 16 5. The peculiar character or genius of a language. 5. In a biblical sense, a profound saying, maxim, or oracular utterance requiring interpretation. 1.3 An overview of idioms 1.3.1 What is an idiom? It is important lớn recognize that idioms are not only colloquial expression as many people believe sầu. They appear in formal style, in slang, in poetry. . . There is very often no way of guessing the meaning of an idiom simply by looking at the individual words it contains. What then is an idiom? In Vietnamese Dictionary, they say about idioms as follow: “Thành ngữ là 1 tập vừa lòng tự sẽ quen thuộc sử dụng cơ mà nghĩa thường quan trọng lý giải được một biện pháp dễ dàng và đơn giản bởi nghĩa hay của các trường đoản cú làm cho nó.” And according lớn The Oxford Learner‟s Dictionary: “An idiom can be defined as a number of words which when taken together, have sầu a different meaning from the individual meanings of each word.” And another definition of idiom: “Idioms are words, phrases, or expression that can not be taken literal. In other words, when used in everyday language, they have the meaning other than the basic one you would find in the dictionary. Every language a lot easier & more fun” And sometimes idioms are defined as “a phrase, construction, or expression that is understood in a given language. This expression has a meaning that 17 differs from typical syntactic patterns or that differs from the literal meaning of its parts taken together.” In fact, this is what can make idioms all the more confusing. For example, the learner may know the words get and goat, and wonder why she doesn‟t understvà the sentence You get my goat! In fact, she has little chance of guessing, out of context, that it means You irritate me! Or other examples: E.g.: “Break a leg” - Literal meaning someone‟ leg is broken & he or she should go khổng lồ the doctor afterwards to lớn get it fixed. - Idiomatic meaning: vị your best and vì well. Often, actors tell each other to lớn “break a leg”
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